The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. As with the Mayans, Quetzalcoatl was a very important foundation character, since the legendary Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl was said to have been one of the founders of Tula – Teotihuacan, the famed city of the gods, a place where the universe was created according to Aztec myths. DID MONTEZUMA THINK CORTEZ WAS THE GOD QUETZALCOATL? [need quotation to verify] Codex drawings pictured both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehecailacocozcatl around the neck. He was given freedom to roam and explore the city as he pleased, and although there were … This legend has been distorted so representations of Quezalcoatl as a white bearded man have become common. [6] Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. Quetzalcoatl is said to have given chocolate to humans, much to the displeasure of the other gods. However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003, 2018[34]), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2003), among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. The description of Quetzalcoatl is remarkably similar to that of the story of Christ in the New Testament, and one cannot discount that fact the friars or priests may have added to the Codex Vaticano their own interpretation in order to make Christianity more palatable to the Aztec people. Although there is … aztec god. Quetzalcoatl Fought With His Brother . (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. In this period the deity is known to have been named Quetzalcōhuātl by his Nahua followers. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". 1996, p109, Peppas, Lynn. He may also have a hat-band holding sacrificial implements, a flower, a fan of black and yellow feathers and ear-rings of jade circles or spiral shells (epcololli). Belief in Cortes as Quetzalcoatl and the Fall of Tenochtitlan. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. Cortes did not speak Nahuatl, so he culd not speak directly to Motecuhzoma/Montezuma. The Aztecs dominion over Mexico came about by years of war, as a result, the Aztec had many enemies. [2] The worship of a Feathered Serpent is first … And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: "[Quetzalcoatl] is wrathful. 123 Cortés and Quetzalcoatl The timing of this event coincided with the arrival from ARCH 100 at Simon Fraser University "He's that Feathered Serpent of Ancient Mexico". On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. There's a nugget of truth in this relating to events described in the primary sources, but popular perception of what happened has been heavily distorted in a way that bares little resemblance to the truth. Inca Mythology: The Realms of Hanan Pacha, Kay Pacha & Uku Pacha, Inca Cloth: Weaving Grades of Ancient Peruvian Textiles, Almazan, Marco A. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. After commissioning two previous expeditions of Mexico headed first by Francisco Fernandez de Cordova and then Juan de Grijalva, the governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, decided on a third Mexican expedition in 1518. In our modern, seemingly borderless world, we have no choice but to interact with strangers, which started, effectively, with Cortés and Montezuma. The peacefulness of his greeting was due to the traditions and customs of the people, but Cortés also later stated the people believed him to be Quetzalcoatl or someone sent by … Some legends describe him as opposed to human sacrifice[25] while others describe him practicing it.[26][27]. [29][30][31][32][33] Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. prior to Cuauhtémoc, Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl was represented with a mask and a bird's beak that doesn't leave space for a beard; and as for Quetzalcoatl's color, we know it was white, but not in racial terms. Quetzalcoatl was considered important in the pantheon of Aztec gods. Cortés had already separated himself from Cuban governor Velazquez de Cuéllar, but by the taking of Veracruz, Cortés placed himself directly under the command of King Carlos V of Spain. Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés … The two arduous years he spent on this disastrous expedition damaged his health and his position. To both Teotihuacan and Maya cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare.[19]. [22] In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald. info)) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being. Thanks for the A2A. In his form as Ehecatl he is the wind, and is represented by spider monkeys, ducks, and the wind itself. As Ehecatl-Quetzalcóatl he is often black, wears a red mask like a duck’s beak and has long canine teeth. Cortés moved up the social and governmental ranks during his time on the islands. Lastly, the destruction of Tenochtitlan, and the Aztec Empire came about shortly after the arrival of Hernan Cortes, and his Spanish Conquistadors in 1519 (Levy … Thousands of sacrifices in a single day was not uncommon. It is also possible that Montezuma thought Cortés was another Mexica god, perhaps the trickster god Texcatlipoca. The worship of a feathered serpent is first known documented in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. Quetzalcoatl, asteroid 1,915 (the 1,915th asteroid to be discovered, on March 9, 1953), is approximately .4 kilometer in diameter and has an orbital period of 4 years. The Nahuatl nouns compounded into the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1982, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002, Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970, (in English, Spanish, and Nahuatl languages), Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, "Evidence of Mushroom Worship in Mesoamerica", "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on, "Readings in Classical Nahuatl: The Death of Quetzalcoatl", "The Complete New York City Horror Movie Marathon! Consider the following: 1. The name of the K’iche’ Maya deity Q’uq’umatz meant “Quetzal Serpent” while the Yucatec Maya god Kukulkantranslated to the less specific “Feathered Serpent.” He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of mankind. And in this he did wrong, in view of their earnest request and supplications." [13] In Mazatec legends the astrologer deity Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, who is also represented by Venus, bears a close relationship with Quetzalcoatl.[14]. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Maya Vision Serpent shown below. Although human sacrifice to the Gods was common amongst the tribes in Mexico at that time, the Aztec culture took it to a higher level. Common depiction of Kukulkan in Mayan art. When Hernán Cortés learned about the wealthy Aztecs during his exploration trip, he set out to find them. [21], The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. At that time he seems to have been conceived as a vegetation god. Represented as the plumed serpent, Quetzalcoatl was also manifest in the wind, one of the most powerful forces of nature, and this relationship was captured in a text in the Nahuatl language: Quetzalcoatl; yn ehecatl ynteiacancauh yntlachpancauh in tlaloque, yn aoaque, yn qujqujiauhti. 1, p221, Downing, Todd. This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. The Mayan god Quetzalcoatl was said to have left the Mayans and headed east across the ocean, and he would one day return. [12] In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle. Quetzalcoatl in feathered serpent form as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Some scholarship maintains the view that the Aztec Empire's fall may be attributed in part to the belief in Cortés as the returning Quetzalcoatl, notably in works by David Carrasco (1982), H. B. Nicholson (2001 (1957)) and John Pohl (2016). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, 2005, Vol. “Spanish Conquest”. Show transcribed image text. [34] This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. We've all heard the name before. Had it not been for certain facilitating factors, however, Mexican history might have very well been a different one all together. Since the sixteenth century, it has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl's return. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. Cortés was born in 1485 in Medellín, Spain. How did the Columbian Exchange bring the change to Europe? But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. This prediction came true with the arrival on American shores of Hernando Cortés. info)) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". These two interpretations of the god Quetzalcoatl, along with Cortés’ march into Tenochtitlan on the First Year of the Reed, have led to the accepted assumption that the invading Spaniards were mistaken by the Aztecs as either being representatives or incarnations of Quetzalcoatl. Hearts were cut … What was the capital city of the Aztecs? [9] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or Thomas the Apostle—identifications which have also become sources of a diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.[10]. They begged Cortés to leave someone behind to teach them to believe in the God of the Christians; but he did not dare consent, for fear they might kill the preacher, and also because he had few priests and friars with him. 20 Issue 2, p131, 7p, Berdan, Frances. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. This has been questioned by some ethnohistorians, like Matthew Restall, who argues that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortes connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post … On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbo… According to one of the legends, Quetzalcoatl, who was among the gods of creation, was forced into exile by Tezcatlipoca; another principal Aztec god. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. Then again, there may have been confusion on the part of the Spanish; the possibility of the misinterpretation of the Nahuatl language for the greeting … Moctezuma did not think Cortés was a god (Quetzalcoatl) Compa_Mighty Mere Mortal posted 09-15-06 07:54 PM CT (US) This is my translation of part of the chapter called A myth: Moctezuma believed Cortés was Quetzalcoatl from Pablo Moctezuma Barragán's book, titled Moctezuma and The Anahuac (Noriega Editores, Mexico 2004). Whether by shear luck or by providence, the time of Cortés’ arrival coincided with the prophesied return of the Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethnopolitical groups in Mesoamerican history. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. This article is about a Mesoamerican deity. Though Velazquez de Cuéllar revoked his charter shortly after giving it to him, Cortés managed to leave Cuba hurriedly and set out on his own – along with 500 men, horses and artillery – to conquer Mexico. Quetzalcoatl would be considered the originator of the arts, poetry and all knowledge. Quetzalcoatl / ˌ k ɛ t s ɑː l ˈ k oʊ ɑː t əl /; (Spanish pronunciation: [ketsalˈkoatɬ] ()) (Classical Nahuatl: Quetzalcohuātl [ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ]) is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent". Representations of a feathered snake occur as early as the Teotihuacan civilization (3rd to 8th century CE) on the central plateau. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente "Motolinia" saw elements of Christianity in the pre-Columbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica had been evangelized before, possibly by Thomas the Apostle, who, according to legend, had "gone to preach beyond the Ganges". Matthew Restall 2001) who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is asserted in no documents created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. [18] Historian Enrique Florescano also analyzing Teotihuacan iconography argues that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. Sailing further up along the east coast of Mexico, Hernán Cortés and his men took Veracruz, claiming it for the Spanish crown. As god … However, that only answers the WHAT. When Cortés learned of this, he left … Quetzalcoatl in Art, Literature, and Everyday Life In the Codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorial Nahuatl, a speech which, as described in the codex written by the Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and his Tlatelolcan informants, included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as: You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you. American food plants such as corn and potatoes improved Europeans' diet . 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